Scientists have been trying to figure out the beginning and end of the universe for centuries, but until now it is nothing less than a mystery, with new information coming to light with each passing day that adds to the mystery. How was the newborn form of the universe? Scientists have been searching for an answer to this question for years. For this purpose, in 1990, they sent the Hubble telescope around the earth, through which they have been able to uncover many of the secrets of the universe, but this journey is not over yet.
There are still many questions that we need to look at the universe more closely to find answers. Although scientists are also looking at the universe in X-rays, infrared and ultraviolet lights, they believe that a bigger telescope than Hubble should be built to show a clear picture of the origin of the universe, but what if it is millions of times bigger than Hubble? “Natural telescopes” exist in the universe?
Yes, there are natural telescopes in the universe with the help of which we can detect even distant galaxies. But the only difference between these telescopes and our telescopes is that our telescopes use glasses and those telescopes use gravity!! Common people have the impression that binoculars are used to see distant objects up close but very few people know how binoculars work. A telescope is an instrument consisting of two or more mirrors (lenses). As the light passes through the glass, the material in the glass cannot maintain an alignment and bends.
According to experts, the galaxies that are lost in the depths of the universe can be seen from them
After that, all the light rays come to a point which is called “focal point” in the term of physics. To understand natural telescopes, we have to understand Einstein’s basic theory of relativity, according to which the universe There is a cloak of space and time and the more matter the body has, the more it will bend in this cloak. According to the theory of relativity, the attraction of this body will also be greater due to the greater curvature. When light passes through this body, it will not stay in a straight line due to gravity and will be bent.
But are children taught from a young age that “light always travels in a straight line and never changes course”? no way! This is hundred percent true. According to the theory of relativity, “light remains in a straight line in time and space, but if the sheet is bent due to the curvature caused by more matter, the light also bends while maintaining its relation to it.”
Natural telescopes also have a similar mechanism by which they can see galaxies that are lost in the depths of the universe. Between these distant galaxies and Earth is another (larger) galaxy that acts as a lens. The gravitational pull of this galaxy bends the light coming from a distance and the galaxy appears to surround the larger galaxy even though it is behind it.
When astronomers look at such galaxies in the sky, they also see the circular shape of another distant galaxy around the original galaxy, from which they calculate that this circle is not part of the nearby galaxy, but a similar one. It belongs to another galaxy that is hidden behind it. Since this was first predicted by Einstein, the circular shapes of galaxies were named “Einstein rings”. The question that comes to mind after reading about Einstein rings is how do scientists know that the ring in the picture is a distorted form of another galaxy? The answer is that we know that all galaxies in the universe are elliptical in shape.
This implies that this circle may be the result of some natural charisma. Therefore, scientists define this phenomenon as the bending of the light of the previous galaxy due to the gravity of a large galaxy and the emergence of Einstein rings is called “gravitational lensing”. After the publication of the fundamental theory of relativity in 1915, British mathematician Sir Arthur Eddington took pictures of a few stars near the Sun during the eclipse of May 29, 1919, and Albert Einstein’s basic theory of relativity was confirmed, according to which gravity bends the paths of light rays.
After this was proved in 1919, astronomers observed galaxies. They discovered that if a galaxy is hidden behind a larger galaxy in such a way that the Earth and the two galaxies are aligned, then only can the view of “Einstein rings” be seen. Also, if these two are not aligned with the Earth, then part of the hidden galaxy will be visible on one side of the larger galaxy and the rest on the other side. Due to this disorder, the four bright regions of the hidden galaxy will appear around the larger galaxy. It is called “Einstein Cross”.
Another advantage of gravitational lensing is that gravity bends not only visible light, but also X-rays, infrared, and ultraviolet light, allowing scientists to use gravitational lensing for these lights as well. However, there are natural telescopes, natural flares and many other such things in the universe which are surprising the humans and scientists are busy exploring the origin and end of the universe through them.